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Colesterol |
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Colesterol

Ce este colesterolul?

Colesterolul este o substanţă înrudită cu grăsimile şi care are un rol important în buna funcţionare a organismului. El are în mod normal o concentraţie în sânge de până la 200-250 mg/dl.

Sursele de colesterol pentru organism sunt: alimentele grase (grăsimi animale, gălbenuşul de ou, viscere) sau fabricarea lui de către ficat la persoanele cu predispoziţie ereditară, obeze, diabetice, alcoolice sau care folosesc anticoncepţionale.

Creşterea colesterolulul peste valorile normale se numeşte hipercolesterolemie. Ea apare fie datorită unei alimentaţii bogate în colesterol, fie prin fabricarea lui în exces în situaţiile mai sus amintite.

Hipercolesterolemia duce la ateroscleroză, o ameninţare majoră asupra inimii.

 Ce reprezintă colesterolul “rău” şi cel “bun”?

 Colesterolul care circulă în sânge se prezintă sub două forme. O formă este colesterolul “rău”. În cea mai mare parte, el este colesterolul-LDL (sau col-LDL). Valorile normale ale col-LDL sunt de 130 mg/dl. O mică parte din colesterolul “rău” circulă legat de trigliceride (deci nu este col-LDL). Termenul de “rău” se referă la faptul că acest colesterol se depune în peretele arterelor, producând ateroscleroza.

O altă formă o reprezintă colesterolul “bun” sau colesterolul-HDL (col-HDL). Valorile lui normale în sânge sunt cuprinse între 35-40 mg/dl. Se numeşte “bun” pentru că el reprezintă colesterolul “scos” din artere şi alte ţesuturi pentru a fi eliminat din corp.

În condiţii normale în sânge se găseşte de aproximativ 4 ori mai mult colesterol “rău” decât colesterol “bun”. Dacă acest raport creşte, este favorizată producerea aterosclerozei. Creşterea raportului se realizează fie prin creşterea col-LDL (“rău”), fie prin scăderea col-HDL (“bun”). Scăderea raportului se datorează reducerii col-LDL (“rău”) sau creşterii col-HDL (“bun”). În acest caz riscul producerii aterosclerozei este diminuat.

Semnificaţia determinărilor de colesterol din sânge este următoarea:

v      Colesterolul total = colesterol “rău” + colesterolul “bun”, dar în general, se consideră că el reflectă colesterolul “rău”;

v      Col-LDL = întotdeauna este colesterol “rău”;

v      Col-HDL = întotdeauna este colesterol “bun”;

v      Raportul colesterol total/col-HDL arată de câte ori este mai mult colesterol “rău” decât colesterol “bun”. Dacă raportul  este >5, există pericolul producerii aterosclerozei

 

Valori normale ale lipidelor din sânge:

Colesterol total                              < 200 mg%
Col-HDL                                         > 40 mg%
Col-LDL                                         < 120 mg%
Colesterol total/col-HDL                  < 5 mg%
Trigliceride                                    < 150 mg%

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