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Tromboza venoasa - Tromboflebita |
Cardiologie, Cardiologie Bucuresti, Cardiolog, Cabinet Cardiologie,Cardiologie Interventionala, Radiologie Interventionala, Fibrom Uterin, Coronarografie, Angioplastie Coronariana, ECG, Ecografie Cardiaca

Tromboza venoasa - Tromboflebita

Tromboflebita este obturarea totala sau partiala a peretelui venos prin coagularea intravenoasa. Mai explicit, este vorba de inflamarea peretelui venos si de formarea de cheaguri de sange ce pot astupa total sau partial vena, ingreunand circulatia sanguina. AcestI trombi (cheaguri de sange), nu se formeaza dintr-odata, ci treptat, insa evolutia lor este destul de rapida.

Una dintre cauzele frecvente de aparitie a trombozei venoase este insuficienta cardiaca si imobilizarea prelungita. Ea mai poate fi cauzata de leucemii, anemii, poliglobulii, febra tifoida, cancer, supuratii, traumatisme, varice, de tratamente cu antibiotice si corticoizi. Se spune ca tromboflebita este boala persoanelor de varsta a 3-a, insa se poate manifesta si la persoanele tinere. Debuteaza la nivelul venelor gambei si urca treptat spre venele femurului si cele din zona iliaca. Sunt insa si cazuri, mai rare, si de afectarea membrelor superioare.

In functie de venele afectate, tromboflebita poate fi superficiala sau profunda. In cazul trombozei venoase superficiale sunt afectate venele subcutanate, pe cand in tromboflebita profunda sunt obturate venele musculare.

Simptomele tromboflebitei:

* Tromboza venoasa superficiala: consta in reactii inflamatorii (roseata) ale venelor superficiale. Semnele acestei afectiuni sunt discrete: durere continua si la mers, aparitia unui cordon dur, rosu si sensibil in zona afectata, de obicei la nivelul venei.
* Tromboza venoasa profunda: se disting doua stadii: Stadiul preedematos caracterizat prin febra de 38°, tahicardie, stare de neliniste cauzata de o durere spontana la nivelul gambei sau a musculaturii plantare, greutate si schiopatare, cresterea temperaturii locale si stadiul de Tromboza venoasa care se manifesta prin aparitia unui edem dur, cald, alb, lucios, dureri in timp care scad pe masura constituirii edemului.

Acestea sunt cele mai importante forme pe care le poate atinge tromboflebita. Pe langa acestea, se vorbeste in medicina si de tromboflebita migratoare sau recidivanta, tromboflebita varicoasa (complicatii ale varicelor) si tromboflebita cu spasm arterial (flebita albastra, insotita de gangrena).

COMPLICATIA CEA MAI GRAVA ESTE EMBOLIA PULMONARA SAU TROMBEMBOLISM PULMONAR (TEP).

Coagulabilitatea sangelui:

Coagulabilitatea sangelui este declansata de multi factori. Infectiile, bolile maligne, deshidratarea, obezitatea, contraceptivele orale, policitemia duc la ingrosarea sangelui si la aparitia tromboflebitei si mai departe a emboliei pulmonare. Pentru a distruge acesti trombi care se fixeaza la nivelul venelor se recomanda de catre medicul cardiolog tratament cu anticoagulant. Scopul acestora este sa fluidizeze sangele pentru a distruge trombul deja format.

In cadrul tromboflebitei profunde se recomanda repaus total la pat cu imobilizarea si ridicarea piciorului deasupra nivelului inimii, comprese calde, masaje cu unguente pe baza de heparina (pentru activarea circulatiei sanguine) de 3 ori pe zi si tratament medicamentos cu anticoagulante. Acest tratament cu anticoagulante presupune verificarea lunara a timpul de coagulare a sangelui, cunoscut in medicina ca testul INR.

Sfat important !!!

Pentru a preveni aparitia sau manifestarea tromboflebitei la o varsta frageda, practicati inotul, mergeti cat de mult puteti pe jos si consumati o alimentatie bogata in fructe si legume. Iar daca aveti un serviciu care va tine legat de birou, obisnuiti-va ca din ora in ora sa faceti rotatii de glezna sau sa va strangeti si indreptati genunchii. Prin aceste miscari circulatia sanguina se activeaza si tot organismul se revigoreaza.

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